In previous lessons you learned about the alef and what it looks like in various positions within a word. In this lesson you are going to learn about the variants of the hamza and how it is used with the alef and without it. This is by no means a complete list of the rules, but an introduction to the basic ones.
When alef is without a hamza it is just a long vowel. However, when it is associated with a hamza it is pronounced as a consonant followed by a short vowel. Listen to these examples [sounds are still under construction]:
The alef with a hamza can also occur in the medial and final positions as in these examples. Note that the hamzas in the first column are not followed by a short vowel (there is a sukoon).
In the final position, if the hamza is preceded by a long vowel or a consonant with a sukoon (no vowel), it is written on the line without an alef as in these examples:
In the middle of a word, if the hamza is preceded by a kasra or yeh (whether it is a long vowel ii or a semivowel y), the hamza is placed on a yeh without dots as in these examples:
|a hundred||they come|
|water well||two things|
If the hamza is preceded by a damma, it is placed on a waw as in these examples: